GATE

Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering (GATE) is a national examination conducted jointly by Indian Institute of Science (IISc) Bangalore and seven Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs) at Bombay, Delhi, Guwahati, Kanpur, Kharagpur, Madras and Roorkee on behalf of National Coordination Board (NCB)-GATE, Department of Higher Education, Ministry of Education (MoE), Government of India. GATE examination is a Computer Based Test (CBT).

Organising Institute for GATE 2022 is Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Kharagpur.

Qualifying in GATE is a mandatory requirement for seeking admission and/or financial assistance to Postgraduate Programs (Master’s and Doctoral) with Ministry of Education (MoE) and other Government Scholarships / Assistantships, subject to the admission criteria of the admitting institute.

The GATE score is also used by some Public Sector Undertakings (PSUs) for their recruitment and by several other universities in India and abroad for admissions.

GATE 2021 score will remain valid for THREE YEARS from the date of announcement of results.

 

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Exam Information

GATE 2022 Exam Pattern

The Gate paper is conducted every year by one of the IITs. There is no major changes introduced in the exam pattern. Only two new disciplines are introduced this year. Check the exam pattern in the table.

ParticularsDetails
Examination ModeComputer Based Test (Online)
Duration3 Hours
SectionGeneral Aptitude (GA) and
Candidate Selected Subject
Type of QuestionsMultiple Choice Questions (MCQs),
Multiple Select Questions (MSQ), and
Numerical Answer Type (NAT) Questions
Design of QuestionsApplication
Analysis and synthesis
Comprehension
Recall
Number of Questions10 (GA) + 55 (subject) = 65 Questions
Total Marks100 Marks
Marking SchemeAll of the questions will be worth 1 or 2 marks

PH PHYSICS
Section 1: Mathematical Physics
Linear vector space: basis, orthogonality and completeness; matrices; vector
calculus; linear differential equations; elements of complex analysis: CauchyRiemann conditions, Cauchy’s theorems, singularities, residue theorem and
applications; Laplace transforms, Fourier analysis; elementary ideas about tensors:
covariant and contravariant tensor, Levi-Civita and Christoffel symbols.
Section 2: Classical Mechanics
D’Alembert’s principle, cyclic coordinates, variational principle, Lagrange’s
equation of motion, central force and scattering problems, rigid body motion;
small oscillations, Hamilton’s formalisms; Poisson bracket; special theory of
relativity: Lorentz transformations, relativistic kinematics, mass‐energy equivalence.
Section 3: Electromagnetic Theory
Solutions of electrostatic and magnetostatic problems including boundary value
problems; dielectrics and conductors; Maxwell’s equations; scalar and vector
potentials; Coulomb and Lorentz gauges; Electromagnetic waves and their
reflection, refraction, interference, diffraction and polarization; Poynting vector,
Poynting theorem, energy and momentum of electromagnetic waves; radiation
from a moving charge.
Section 4: Quantum Mechanics
Postulates of quantum mechanics; uncertainty principle; Schrodinger equation;
one-, two- and three-dimensional potential problems; particle in a box, transmission
through one dimensional potential barriers, harmonic oscillator, hydrogen atom;
linear vectors and operators in Hilbert space; angular momentum and spin;
addition of angular momenta; time independent perturbation theory; elementary
scattering theory.
Section 5: Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics
Laws of thermodynamics; macrostates and microstates; phase space; ensembles;
partition function, free energy, calculation of thermodynamic quantities; classical
and quantum statistics; degenerate Fermi gas; black body radiation and Planck’s
distribution law; Bose‐Einstein condensation; first and second order phase
transitions, phase equilibria, critical point.
Section 6: Atomic and Molecular Physics
Spectra of one‐ and many‐electron atoms; LS and jj coupling; hyperfine structure;
Zeeman and Stark effects; electric dipole transitions and selection rules; rotational
and vibrational spectra of diatomic molecules; electronic transition in diatomic
molecules, Franck‐Condon principle; Raman effect; NMR, ESR, X-ray spectra;
lasers: Einstein coefficients, population inversion, two and three level systems.
Section 7: Solid State Physics & Electronics
Elements of crystallography; diffraction methods for structure determination;
bonding in solids; lattice vibrations and thermal properties of solids; free electron
theory; band theory of solids: nearly free electron and tight binding models; metals,
semiconductors and insulators; conductivity, mobility and effective mass; optical,
dielectric and magnetic properties of solids; elements of superconductivity: Type-I
and Type II superconductors, Meissner effect, London equation.
Semiconductor devices: diodes, Bipolar Junction Transistors, Field Effect Transistors;
operational amplifiers: negative feedback circuits, active filters and oscillators;
regulated power supplies; basic digital logic circuits, sequential circuits, flip‐flops,
counters, registers, A/D and D/A conversion.
Section 8: Nuclear and Particle Physics
Nuclear radii and charge distributions, nuclear binding energy, Electric and
magnetic moments; nuclear models, liquid drop model: semi‐empirical mass
formula, Fermi gas model of nucleus, nuclear shell model; nuclear force and two
nucleon problem; alpha decay, beta‐decay, electromagnetic transitions in nuclei;
Rutherford scattering, nuclear reactions, conservation laws; fission and fusion;
particle accelerators and detectors; elementary particles, photons, baryons,
mesons and leptons; quark model.

 

GATE 2021 Exam Pattern

The Gate paper is conducted every year by one of the IITs. There is no major changes introduced in the exam pattern. Only two new disciplines are introduced this year. Check the exam pattern in the table.

ParticularsDetails
Examination ModeComputer Based Test (Online)
Duration3 Hours
SectionGeneral Aptitude (GA) and
Candidate Selected Subject
Type of QuestionsMultiple Choice Questions (MCQs),
Multiple Select Questions (MSQ), and
Numerical Answer Type (NAT) Questions
Design of QuestionsApplication
Analysis and synthesis
Comprehension
Recall
Number of Questions10 (GA) + 55 (subject) = 65 Questions
Total Marks100 Marks
Marking SchemeAll of the questions will be worth 1 or 2 marks

XL – T Zoology
Section 1: Animal world
Animal diversity, distribution, systematics and classification of animals, phylogenetic
relationships.
Section 2: Evolution
Origin and history of life on earth, theories of evolution, natural selection,
adaptation, speciation.
Section 3: Genetics
Basic Principles of inheritance, molecular basis of heredity, sex determination and
sex-linked characteristics, cytoplasmic inheritance, linkage, recombination and
mapping of genes in eukaryotes, population genetics.
Section 4: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Nucleic acids, proteins, lipids and carbohydrates; replication, transcription and
translation; regulation of gene expression, organization of genome, Kreb’s cycle,
glycolysis, enzyme catalysis, hormones and their actions, vitamins.
Section 5: Cell Biology
Structure of cell, cellular organelles and their structure and function, cell cycle, cell
division, chromosomes and chromatin structure.
Section 6: Gene expression in Eukaryotes
Eukaryotic gene organization and expression (Basic principles of signal
transduction).
Section 7: Animal Anatomy and Physiology
Comparative physiology, the respiratory system, circulatory system, digestive
system, the nervous system, the excretory system, the endocrine system, the
reproductive system, the skeletal system, osmoregulation.
Section 8: Parasitology and Immunology
Nature of parasite, host-parasite relation, protozoan and helminthic parasites, the
immune response, cellular and humoral immune response, evolution of the immune
system.
Section 9: Development Biology
Embryonic development, cellular differentiation, organogenesis, metamorphosis,
genetic basis of development, stem cells.
Section 10: Ecology
The ecosystem, habitats, the food chain, population dynamics, species diversity,
zoogerography, biogeochemical cycles, conservation biology.
Section 11: Animal Behaviour
Types of behaviours, courtship, mating and territoriality, instinct, learning and
memory, social behaviour across the animal taxa, communication, pheromones,
evolution of animal behaviour.

GATE 2022 Exam Pattern

The Gate paper is conducted every year by one of the IITs. There is no major changes introduced in the exam pattern. Only two new disciplines are introduced this year. Check the exam pattern in the table.

ParticularsDetails
Examination ModeComputer Based Test (Online)
Duration3 Hours
SectionGeneral Aptitude (GA) and
Candidate Selected Subject
Type of QuestionsMultiple Choice Questions (MCQs),
Multiple Select Questions (MSQ), and
Numerical Answer Type (NAT) Questions
Design of QuestionsApplication
Analysis and synthesis
Comprehension
Recall
Number of Questions10 (GA) + 55 (subject) = 65 Questions
Total Marks100 Marks
Marking SchemeAll of the questions will be worth 1 or 2 marks

 

PH PHYSICS
Section 1: Mathematical Physics
Linear vector space: basis, orthogonality and completeness; matrices; vector
calculus; linear differential equations; elements of complex analysis: CauchyRiemann conditions, Cauchy’s theorems, singularities, residue theorem and
applications; Laplace transforms, Fourier analysis; elementary ideas about tensors:
covariant and contravariant tensor, Levi-Civita and Christoffel symbols.
Section 2: Classical Mechanics
D’Alembert’s principle, cyclic coordinates, variational principle, Lagrange’s
equation of motion, central force and scattering problems, rigid body motion;
small oscillations, Hamilton’s formalisms; Poisson bracket; special theory of
relativity: Lorentz transformations, relativistic kinematics, mass‐energy equivalence.
Section 3: Electromagnetic Theory
Solutions of electrostatic and magnetostatic problems including boundary value
problems; dielectrics and conductors; Maxwell’s equations; scalar and vector
potentials; Coulomb and Lorentz gauges; Electromagnetic waves and their
reflection, refraction, interference, diffraction and polarization; Poynting vector,
Poynting theorem, energy and momentum of electromagnetic waves; radiation
from a moving charge.
Section 4: Quantum Mechanics
Postulates of quantum mechanics; uncertainty principle; Schrodinger equation;
one-, two- and three-dimensional potential problems; particle in a box, transmission
through one dimensional potential barriers, harmonic oscillator, hydrogen atom;
linear vectors and operators in Hilbert space; angular momentum and spin;
addition of angular momenta; time independent perturbation theory; elementary
scattering theory.
Section 5: Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics
Laws of thermodynamics; macrostates and microstates; phase space; ensembles;
partition function, free energy, calculation of thermodynamic quantities; classical
and quantum statistics; degenerate Fermi gas; black body radiation and Planck’s
distribution law; Bose‐Einstein condensation; first and second order phase
transitions, phase equilibria, critical point.
Section 6: Atomic and Molecular Physics
Spectra of one‐ and many‐electron atoms; LS and jj coupling; hyperfine structure;
Zeeman and Stark effects; electric dipole transitions and selection rules; rotational
and vibrational spectra of diatomic molecules; electronic transition in diatomic
molecules, Franck‐Condon principle; Raman effect; NMR, ESR, X-ray spectra;
lasers: Einstein coefficients, population inversion, two and three level systems.
Section 7: Solid State Physics & Electronics
Elements of crystallography; diffraction methods for structure determination;
bonding in solids; lattice vibrations and thermal properties of solids; free electron
theory; band theory of solids: nearly free electron and tight binding models; metals,
semiconductors and insulators; conductivity, mobility and effective mass; optical,
dielectric and magnetic properties of solids; elements of superconductivity: Type-I
and Type II superconductors, Meissner effect, London equation.
Semiconductor devices: diodes, Bipolar Junction Transistors, Field Effect Transistors;
operational amplifiers: negative feedback circuits, active filters and oscillators;
regulated power supplies; basic digital logic circuits, sequential circuits, flip‐flops,
counters, registers, A/D and D/A conversion.
Section 8: Nuclear and Particle Physics
Nuclear radii and charge distributions, nuclear binding energy, Electric and
magnetic moments; nuclear models, liquid drop model: semi‐empirical mass
formula, Fermi gas model of nucleus, nuclear shell model; nuclear force and two
nucleon problem; alpha decay, beta‐decay, electromagnetic transitions in nuclei;
Rutherford scattering, nuclear reactions, conservation laws; fission and fusion;
particle accelerators and detectors; elementary particles, photons, baryons,
mesons and leptons; quark model.

GATE 2022 Exam Pattern

The Gate paper is conducted every year by one of the IITs. There is no major changes introduced in the exam pattern. Only two new disciplines are introduced this year. Check the exam pattern in the table.

ParticularsDetails
Examination ModeComputer Based Test (Online)
Duration3 Hours
SectionGeneral Aptitude (GA) and
Candidate Selected Subject
Type of QuestionsMultiple Choice Questions (MCQs),
Multiple Select Questions (MSQ), and
Numerical Answer Type (NAT) Questions
Design of QuestionsApplication
Analysis and synthesis
Comprehension
Recall
Number of Questions10 (GA) + 55 (subject) = 65 Questions
Total Marks100 Marks
Marking SchemeAll of the questions will be worth 1 or 2 marks

 

BT Biotechnology
Section 1: Engineering Mathematics
Linear Algebra: Matrices and determinants, Systems of linear equations, Eigen values and
Eigen vectors. Calculus: Limit, continuity and differentiability, Partial derivatives, Maxima
and minima, Sequences and series, Test for convergence, Fourier Series. Differential
Equations: Linear and nonlinear first order ODEs, higher order ODEs with constant
coefficients, Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations, Laplace transforms, PDE-Laplace, heat and
wave equations. Probability and Statistics: Mean, median, mode and standard deviation,
Random variables, Poisson, normal and binomial distributions, Correlation and regression
analysis. Numerical Methods: Solution of linear and nonlinear algebraic equations,
Integration of trapezoidal and Simpson’s rule, Single and multistep methods for differential
equations.
Section 2: General Biotechnology
Biochemistry: Biomolecules-structure and functions; Biological membranes, structure,
action potential and transport processes; Enzymes- classification, kinetics and mechanism
of action; Basic concepts and designs of metabolism (carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids
and nucleic acids) photosynthesis, respiration and electron transport chain; Bioenergetics
Microbiology: Viruses- structure and classification; Microbial classification and
diversity(bacterial, algal and fungal); Methods in microbiology; Microbial growth and
nutrition; Aerobic and anaerobic respiration; Nitrogen fixation; Microbial diseases and
host-pathogen interaction
Cell Biology: Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell structure; Cell cycle and cell growth control;
Cell-Cell communication, Cell signaling and signal transduction
Molecular Biology and Genetics: Molecular structure of genes and chromosomes;
Mutations and mutagenesis; Nucleic acid replication, transcription, translation and their
regulatory mechanisms in prokaryotes and eukaryotes; Mendelian inheritance; Gene
interaction; Complementation; Linkage, recombination and chromosome mapping; Extra
chromosomal inheritance; Microbial genetics (plasmids, transformation, transduction,
conjugation); Horizontal gene transfer and Transposable elements; RNA interference; DNA
damage and repair; Chromosomal variation; Molecular basis of genetic diseases
Analytical Techniques: Principles of microscopy-light, electron, fluorescent and confocal;
Centrifugation- high speed and ultra; Principles of spectroscopy-UV, visible, CD, IR, FTIR,
Raman, MS,NMR; Principles of chromatography- ion exchange, gel filtration, hydrophobic
interaction, affinity, GC,HPLC, FPLC; Electrophoresis; Microarray
Immunology: History of Immunology; Innate, humoral and cell mediated immunity;
Antigen; Antibody structure and function; Molecular basis of antibody diversity; Synthesis
of antibody and secretion; Antigen-antibody reaction; Complement; Primary and
secondary lymphoid organ; B and T cells and macrophages; Major histocompatibility
complex (MHC); Antigen processing and presentation; Polyclonal and monoclonal
antibody; Regulation of immune response; Immune tolerance; Hypersensitivity;
Autoimmunity; Graft versus host reaction.
Bioinformatics: Major bioinformatic resources and search tools; Sequence and structure
databases; Sequence analysis (biomolecular sequence file formats, scoring matrices,
sequence alignment, phylogeny);Data mining and analytical tools for genomic and
proteomic studies; Molecular dynamics and simulations (basic concepts including force
fields, protein-protein, protein-nucleic acid, protein-ligand interaction)
Section 3: Recombinant DNA Technology
Restriction and modification enzymes; Vectors; plasmid, bacteriophage and other viral
vectors, cosmids, Ti plasmid, yeast artificial chromosome; mammalian and plant
expression vectors; cDNA and genomic DNA library; Gene isolation, cloning and
expression ; Transposons and gene targeting; DNA labeling; DNA sequencing; Polymerase
chain reactions; DNA fingerprinting; Southern and northern blotting; In-situ hybridization;
RAPD, RFLP; Site-directed mutagenesis; Gene transfer technologies; Gene therapy
Section 4: Plant and Animal Biotechnology
Totipotency; Regeneration of plants; Plant growth regulators and elicitors; Tissue culture
and Cell suspension culture system: methodology, kinetics of growth and, nutrient
optimization; Production of secondary metabolites by plant suspension cultures; Hairy root
culture; transgenic plants; Plant products of industrial importance
Animal cell culture; media composition and growth conditions; Animal cell and tissue
preservation; Anchorage and non-anchorage dependent cell culture; Kinetics of cell
growth; Micro & macro-carrier culture; Hybridoma technology; Stem cell technology;
Animal cloning; Transgenic animals
Section 5: Bioprocess Engineering and Process Biotechnology
Chemical engineering principles applied to biological system, Principle of reactor design,
ideal and non-ideal multiphase bioreactors, mass and heat transfer; Rheology of
fermentation fluids, Aeration and agitation; Media formulation and optimization; Kinetics
of microbial growth, substrate utilization and product formation; Sterilization of air and
media; Batch, fed-batch and continuous processes; Various types of microbial and
enzyme reactors; Instrumentation control and optimization; Unit operations in solid-liquid
separation and liquid-liquid extraction; Process scale-up, economics and feasibility
analysis
Engineering principle of bioprocessing- Upstream production and downstream;
Bioprocess design and development from lab to industrial scale; Microbial, animal and
plant cell culture platforms; Production of biomass and primary/secondary metabolites;
Biofuels, Bioplastics, industrial enzymes, antibiotics; Large scale production and
purification of recombinant proteins; Industrial application of chromatographic and
membrane based bioseparation methods; Immobilization of biocatalysts (enzymes and
cells) for bioconversion processes; Bioremediation-Aerobic and anaerobic processes for
stabilization of solid / liquid wastes

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